Friday, 13 December 2013

25 Tatvas

“O Grandsire Bhishma  ! Sri Krishna is embodiment of knowledge and wisdom. I want to hear his teachings about Tatva Jnana. Kindly tell me.” asked Dharmaja.

“O Dharmaja! in this connection I tell you the conversation between Lord Siva and Sanatkumara. Once, Parama Siva came down to Sanatkumara. Sanatkumara received Siva with due honours and offered him a seat. Siva asked Sanatkumara to clear off some doubts. Sanatkumara gladly accepted.
“O great saint Sanatkumara! what is to be beheld with Dhyana (meditation). How many Tatvas are there? What is Sankhya and What is Yoga? Tell me about other phylosophical theories” asked Siva.

Sanatkumara told Siva thus: “O Siva! Tatvas are 24. Some may say Tatvas are 23 and some may say 25. Praakrutas say tatvas are 23. They say Mind and intellect are one and the same. It is not correct. Those who believe Tatvas are 24, say that pure mind itself is intellect.

I believe that Tatvas are 25. The 25th Tatva is Adhishtana. It manifests the other 24 Tatvas. All the 24 tatvas appear to have been mingled with 25th Tatva. Therefore, it can be said that there are 24 tatvas. It can also be said that there are no 24 tatvas. Both are possible. Now I tell you about 24 tatvas in detail.

In this Universe, there are Pancha Bhootas. They are 5.
Their attributes are 5. Sense organs are 10.Mind, intellect and Ahankara - 3. Prakriti - 1 These are 24.
Seated on the above 24 tatvas, is Mahat Tatva.
It is 25th tatva.
An intelligent person thinks that the body consists of 24 tatvas. Mahat Tatva which is 25th one, is hidden in the entire body as if fire is hidden in wood. But jealousy and egoism evaporates this knowledge and the man always thinks that this body is eternal and he himself is the body. This egoism keeps him always in samsara.

Vedas manifest paramatma tatva and brahma tatva. This is also called Amrutartha Tatva. Of all the tatvas, this Amrutartha tatva is best. By knowing Amrutartha Tatva, one can conquer Mruthyu. That is Eswara. There is no other God except this Tatva which is true and eternal.

O Parama Siva! if these Tatvas descend, creation starts. If these Tatvas ascend, destruction starts. Passing through all these tatvas and attaining Brahma is oneness. This knowledge is not available for those who do not have devotion and concentration of mind, control over sense organs and who do not study vedas.”. said Sanatkumara.

Next, Sanatkumara taught Parama Siva about Adhyatmamu, Adhi Bhootamu and Adhi daivamu.

“O Parama Siva! The real awareness is knowing that Adhyatma is inherent in all the living beings. Not knowing the above, divine bodies, Rakshasas, Gandharvas and human beings fell in ignorance. So far nobody is aware of Brahma. Brahma tatva is nothing but Omkara. Unless egoism is completely destroyed, Brahma Tatva is not visible. Brahma Tatva is unblemished, enjoyable and indestructible, beyond all duals and it is not visible to sense organs.

This Brahma Tatva was first known to Narayana. Through Narayana, divine bodies, saints, sidhas, sadhyas, gandharvas came to know about it. Later, only eligible human beings were taught about this Brahma Tatva. Brahma Tatva cannot be seen by one and all. Only those who discarded these worldly bondages can behold Brahma Tatva. First, Jeeva shall discard Ahankara (egoism). Then all the thoughts and works done by body, mind and intellect shall the discarded. Then mind and intellect turns towards Paramatma. When all these 23 attributes join Para tatva, what is there tobe seen. That is Advaita State

O Parama Siva! now I explain about the divine bodies in human body. Moon in tongue; Sarasvati in head; Vayu in life; thunders in Udana; Parjanya in Vyana, Sky in breast; Kousika in strength; Eesaana in Apaana;Mitra in Samaana; Sun in eye; earth in body; Vishnu in feet; sides in ear; Prajapati in genital organ; Brahma in intellect. All these are manifested by Atman.

Atma is of two kinds. Prabudha and Abudha. Yogi worships all divine forms equally and make his life travel upwards and keeps it in head and beholds Brahma. That is Avyakta state. Abudha knows about Vyakta form. (visible form). Prabudha knows about Avyakta form (invisible form). In fact, Abudha and Prabudha are two stages of Atma. Atma is one. A yogi who beholds Avyakta is second to none. Others cannot attain that state.

Atma is in three stages. They are Kshara, Akshara and Para. 25th tatva is Prabudha. If this 25th tatva joins Prakriti, it becomes Abudha. That Abudha is 26th tatva. This Abudha is not accessible either to mind or word. By knowing himself, Abudha becomes Prabudha. If Abudha identifies himself with Prakriti, he falls into ignorance. If that ignorance ends, he becomes Prabudha.

O Parama Siva! I told you about the three stages in Paramatma Tatva. Now I tell you about the activities of saints. One who receives sainthood, shall stay in forests and caves. He shall have control over his sense organs and discard all sensual pleasures. Then he becomes Yogi. Yogi controls his food and at last lives without food. Then his mind becomes stable. He beholds Paramatma.

For that purpose, he shall stay in a lonely place without any sounds or disturbance. Then Yogi attains a state without duals, viz., pleasures and sorrows, likes and dislikes etc. It is called Advaita state. Yogi liberates himself from all kinds of sorrows in Advaita state. He attains eight Siddhis viz., Anima, Garima, Laghima etc. He is placed abouve Yakshas, Gandharvas, Sidhas and Sadhyas. They are free from all bondages.

O Parama Siva!at present, myself and my brothers viz., Sanaka, Sananda, Sanatsujata are in the same state. Therefore, there is no other Dharma except Yoga Dharma. To attain Moksha, Yoga dharma is a ladder.

O Parama Siva! I have sofar told you about Yoga. Now I tell about Sankhya. Sankhya Yogis treat both Yoga and Sankhya as one and the same. Mind is greater than sense organs; egoism is greater than mind; intellect is greater than egoism; and nature is greater than intellect. Above all, Purusha remains.

O Parama Siva! Pancha Bhootas (main elements) are 5. Their attributes are 5. Sense organs are 10. Mind, intellect, egoism and Prakriti are 4. In total they are 24 tatvas. By coming into contact with conscious Purusha, Prakriti also becomes conscious. All these 23 tatvas are floating in the 24th tatva Prakriti. In fact, Purusha has no attributes. By coming into contact with Prakriti only, Purusha attains attributes, which are natural to Prakriti. If Purusha realises that he is different from Prakriti, and he is different from these 23 tatvas, Purusha ignores Prakriti and shines like fire without smoke.

If Purusha identifies himself with Prakriti by means of Ahankara, and if he feels that he is creator of this Universe; he becomes Jeeva and Jeeva cannot go against Prakriti. He falls under the influence of Prakriti and drowns in worldly plealsures.

If Purusha ignores Prakriti and turns towards Paramatma, he attains Paramapada. Therefore, if purusha, by taking shelter under satva and attainng Tatva Jnana, he becomes Chidananda Svaroopa, by ignoring Prakriti. This 26th element is awareness. It is eternal, without beginnig or end. It is without death, without decay and everlasting. It shines in the form of Atma.

O Maha Deva! those who study Sankhya Yoga shines with greatest knowledge and intelligence. They remain in prakriti as fish in water and drop of water on lotus leaf, without coming into contact with Prakriti. Though Sankhya Yogi always moves in Prakriti, he is not influenced by the attributes of Prakriti. He beholds Prakriti from a distance and shines in a stable state. In this manner, Purusha by abandoning Prakriti attains Parama Tatva. It is called mukti.

O Parama Siva! this Sankhya was first taught by my teacher, Saint Kapila. Those who were trained under Saint Kapila became wise and learned. I also imparted my learning to one and all. Several Saints viz., Gargya, Goutama, Katyayana etc. cleared of their doubts. They abandoned their bondages with Prakriti and attained liberation.

O Parama Siva! in nutshell, I may say that Purusha, coming into contact with Prakriti, is bondage and Purusha ignoring Prakriti is liberation.

O Dharmaja! this is the conversation between Sanatkumara and Parama Siva.” said Bhishma.

Saturday, 2 February 2013

Four Kumaras
Lord Dakshinamurthy and Four Kumaras

Sanaka, Sananda, Sanathana and Sanatkumara, also called as 'Kumaras', were born from the mind of Lord Brahma. When Brahma ordered them to procreate, they rejected the orders of Brahma. They were very dispassionate and not interested in material things. They began to think about the reason for existence of something called "Creation", and also the reason for their very own existence. Several questions sprang from their minds but there was none competent enough to answer their questions. They wandered for about one hundred years. The young Kumaras began to look old with grey hair as their quest for Truth intensified during the period.

The almighty and all merciful Lord Shiva who is the indweller of all beings decided to enlighten four Kumaras. He himself appeared as a sixteen year old youth under the Banyan tree. When the four elderly Sanakadi rishis first beheld the sixteen-year-old Sri Dakshinamurti sitting under the banyan tree, they were at once attracted by Him, and understood that He was the real Guru.

They approached Him, did three pradakshinas(circumambulation) around Him, prostrated before Him, sat at His Feet and began to ask shrewd and pertinent questions about the nature of reality and the means of attaining it. Because of the great compassion and fatherly love (vatsalya) which He felt for His aged disciples, the young Sri Dakshinamurti was overjoyed to see their earnestness, wisdom and maturity, and gave apt replies to each of their questions. But as He answered each consecutive question, further doubts arose in their minds and they asked further questions. Thus they continued to question Sri Dakshinamurti for a whole year, and He continued to clear their doubts through His compassionate answers.

Finally, however, Sri Dakshinamurti understood that if He continued answering their questions, more doubts would arise in their minds and their ignorance (ajnana)would never end.

Therefore, suppressing even the feeling of compassion and fatherly love which was welling up within Him,He merged Himself into the Supreme Silence. Because of their great maturity (which had ripened to perfection through their year-long association with the Sadguru), as soon as Sri Dakshinamurti assumed Silence, they too automatically merged into Supreme Silence, the true state of the Self.”

By the grace of Lord Dakshinamurthy, the indweller of all, Kumaras have become free from all kinds of doubts. They have become Jnanis(enlightened). They realised that they are 'Atman' ('Self') alone. Having realized Atman(Shiva) the Kumaras freed themselves from all fetters. They said :

Om nama pranavarthaya,
Suddha jnanaika moorthaye nama,
Nirmalaya prasanthaya,
Sri Dakshinamurthaye nama.

Gurave sara lokaanam,
Bishaje bhava roginaam,
Nidhaye sarva vidhyanam,
Sri Dakshinamurthaye nama.

"Salutations to that Dakshinamurthy, Who is the meaning of the pranava, “om”, Who is the personification of unalloyed wisdom(Jnana), Who is always Pure And who is the epitome of peace. Salutations to that Dakshinamurthy, Who is the teacher of the entire world, Who is the doctor to those afflicted by the disease of birth and death, And who is the treasure house of all knowledge."

Birth of Atharva Veda - Why Did The Kumaras Approach Shiva and No One Else

The four sages Sanak,Sanandan,Sanatan,Sanat were learned brahmins. They were the sons of Lord Brahma. They were very proud of their father, Brahma because he was the creator of the holy books , Vedas. They were aware of three Vedas,- Rigved,Yajurved, and Samveda and considered that the whole knowledge is complete in three books.

On the other hand Sage Atharva approached Lord Shiva to get approval of his knowledge which he gathered from the universe using his divine powers. Lord Shiva, impressed by his creation and blessed Sage Atharva that his book of knowledge would constitute the list of Vedas and will be called as ‘Atharvaveda’.

When this news reached the sons of Lord Brahma, they protested as according to them the other three Vedas was a complete set of knowledge and there was no need of fourth Veda. They argued Lord Shiva and challenged his authority to certify fourth veda. . Finally it was decided that whether to certify fourth Veda or not depends upon the result of debate.

Goddess Saraswati was appointed as judge. The four Sages fired too much and too complicated questions to Lord Shiva and there were very confident of their victory as they underestimated Lord Shiva. But Shiva, who is the Lord of all the supreme knowledge, answered each and every question .

Curse a Blessing in Disguise

The Sages accept their defeat gracefully and asked for forgiveness. Since then Artharva Ved was added to the list of Vedas , making the total four. The Sages went to their brother Prajapati Daksha who was bitter rival of Lord Shiva. On listening about the defeat of his four brothers, he cursed them to be small child. After that the four sages turned into small children. Since the sages were very learned , so they thanked their brother for the curse because after becoming kids their urge for learning more would be greater.

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